Recent Publications


Data Intensive Genome Level Analysis for Identifying Novel, Non-Toxic Drug Targets for Multi Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

posted Apr 26, 2017, 2:53 AM by Vaishnavi Sundar   [ updated Apr 26, 2017, 2:58 AM ]

We report the construction of a novel Systems Biology based virtual drug discovery model for the prediction of non-toxic metabolic targets in 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This is based on a data-intensive genome level analysis and the principle of conservation of the evolutionarily important genes. In the 1623 sequenced Mtb strains, 890 metabolic genes identified through a systems approach in Mtb were evaluated for non-synonymous mutations. The 33 genes showed none or one variation in the entire 1623 strains, including 1084 Russian MDR strains. These invariant targets were further evaluated for their experimental and in silico essentiality as well as availability of their crystal structure in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Along with this, targets for the common existing antibiotics and the new Tb drug candidates were also screened for their variation across 1623 strains of Mtb for understanding the drug resistance. We propose that the reduced set of these reported targets could be a more effective starting point for medicinal chemists in generating new chemical leads. This approach has the potential of fueling the dried up Tuberculosis (Tb) drug discovery pipeline.Read more at : https://www.nature.com/articles/srep46595

Anti-HIV microRNA expression in a novel Indian cohort

posted Nov 30, 2016, 2:18 AM by Vaishnavi Sundar

HIV-1 replication inside host cells is known to be regulated by various host factors. Host miRNAs, by virtue of its normal functioning, also regulate HIV-1 RNA expression by either directly targeting virus mRNAs or indirectly by regulating host proteins that HIV-1 uses for own replication. Therefore, it is highly possible that with differential miRNA expression, rate of disease progression will vary in HIV-1 infected individuals. In this study we have compared expression of a panel of 13 reported anti-HIV miRNAs in human PBMCs from long term non progressors (LTNPs), regular progressors and rapid progressors. We found that LTNPs have substantial lower expression of miR-382-5p that positively correlates with viral loads. Combinatorial regulation is highly probable in dictating differential disease progression as average expression of miR-382-5p and miR-155-5p can substantially distinguish LTNP individuals from regular progressors. Read more at : http://www.nature.com/articles/srep28279

The P4 Health Spectrum - A Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory Continuum for Promoting Healthspan

posted Nov 27, 2016, 10:34 PM by Vaishnavi Sundar   [ updated Nov 30, 2016, 1:54 AM ]

Chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory diseases and type-2-diabetes, are now the leading cause of death, disability and diminished quality of life on the planet. Moreover, these diseases are also a major financial burden worldwide, significantly impacting the economy of many countries. Healthcare systems and medicine have progressively improved upon the ability to address infectious diseases and react to adverse health events through both surgical interventions and pharmacology; we have become efficient in delivering reactive care. However, with slowly progressing and often ‘silent’ chronic diseases now being the main cause of illness, healthcare and medicine must evolve into a proactive system, moving away from a merely reactive approach to care. Minimal interactions among the specialists and limited information to the general practitioner and to the individual receiving care lead to a fragmented health approach, non-concerted prescriptions, a scattered follow-up and a suboptimal cost-effectiveness ratio. A new approach in medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory, which we label here as “P4” holds great promise to reduce the burden of chronic diseases by harnessing technology and an increasingly better understanding of environment-biology interactions, evidence-based interventions and the underlying mechanisms of chronic diseases. 

Anti-HIV microRNA expression in a novel Indian cohort

posted Nov 25, 2016, 2:46 AM by Vaishnavi Sundar   [ updated Nov 30, 2016, 1:55 AM ]

HIV-1 replication inside host cells is known to be regulated by various host factors. Host miRNAs, by virtue of its normal functioning, also regulate HIV-1 RNA expression by either directly targeting virus mRNAs or indirectly by regulating host proteins that HIV-1 uses for own replication. Therefore, it is highly possible that with differential miRNA expression, rate of disease progression will vary in HIV-1 infected individuals. In this study we have compared expression of a panel of 13 reported anti-HIV miRNAs in human PBMCs from long term non progressors (LTNPs), regular progressors and rapid progressors.

See more at: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep28279


Economic Impact of Technology Interventions—Streptokinase : Delivering Affordable Healthcare with Clot-buster Drugs

posted Nov 25, 2016, 2:27 AM by Vaishnavi Sundar   [ updated Nov 30, 2016, 1:59 AM ]

 
More than 20 lakh patients of ischaemic heart disease-led myocardial infarction can benefit from a life-saving clot-buster drug in India. At the turn of the century, its availability in India was poor and no domestic production existed until the first Council of Scientific and Industrial Research licensee began production in 2001-02. Its price was less than half that of the drug made by a multinational company, the major supplier in the market at that time. Its supply increased to 1,20,000 doses in 2011 after other producers entered the market. Prices dropped by more than 50%. The economic impact of streptokinase technologies, or the value that would be lost if the licensee's streptokinase did not exist, is about `580 crore for the patients. Read more at:  
http://www.epw.in/journal/2016/38/special-articles/economic-impact-technology-interventions-streptokinase


Thrombolytic Treatment for Myocardial Infarction: Highlighting Healthcare Affordability and Drug Market Segmentation in India

posted Nov 25, 2016, 1:48 AM by Vaishnavi Sundar   [ updated Nov 30, 2016, 2:01 AM ]

 

This study looks at the available life-saving treatments for heart attacks and ischaemic heart diseases administered in India, focusing on streptokinase and finding that it is the life-saving clot-buster for the majority of patients. This brings to light that the surgical intervention of angioplasty is more of an income-biased treatment. Public-funded research and development of indigenous streptokinase has directly enabled access to treatment, especially for economically challenged patients. Read more at: http://www.epw.in/journal/2016/38/commentary/thrombolytic-treatment-myocardial-infarction.html#sthash.FqhUOZn0.gbpl

A web-based resource for designing therapeutics against Ebola Virus

posted Apr 27, 2016, 12:09 AM by Geetha Sugumaran   [ updated Apr 27, 2016, 12:10 AM ]

In this study, we describe a web-based resource, developed for assisting the scientific community in designing an effective therapeutics against the Ebola virus. Firstly, we predicted and identified experimentally validated epitopes in each of the antigens/proteins of the five known ebolaviruses. Secondly, we generated all the possible overlapping 9mer peptides from the proteins of ebolaviruses. Thirdly, conserved peptides across all the five ebolaviruses (four human pathogenic species) with no identical sequence in the human proteome, based on 1000 Genomes project, were identified. Finally, we identified peptide or epitope-based vaccine candidates that could activate both the B- and T-cell arms of the immune system. Read More at : http://www.nature.com/articles/srep24782

Prioritization of anticancer drugs against a cancer using genomic features of cancer cells: A step towards personalized medicine

posted Mar 31, 2016, 11:50 PM by Geetha Sugumaran   [ updated Apr 1, 2016, 3:52 AM ]

In this study, we investigated drug profile of 24 anticancer drugs tested against a large number of cell lines in order to understand the relation between drug resistance and altered genomic features of a cancer cell line. We detected frequent mutations, high expression and high copy number variations of certain genes in both drug resistant cell lines and sensitive cell lines. It was observed that a few drugs, like Panobinostat, are effective against almost all types of cell lines, whereas certain drugs are effective against only a limited type of cell lines. 
                                      Read More at:  http://www.nature.com/articles/srep23857

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